March 5, 2017
In New Zealand, “Pakeha” has referred to New Zealanders of European descent and, more recently, any non-Maori New Zealander. Its origins and etymology are a matter of some dispute, but it typically does not carry the same kind of derogatory connotation as other comparable tags for “white” residents one finds in other bi-cultural contexts. It even appears on official documents collecting demographic information.
The Treaty of Waitangi is considered New Zealand’s founding document, not without controversy. The tribunal set up in 1975 was tasked with investigating historical breaches of the treaty – mainly land claims – and finding means of redressing them.
The 1981 Springbok protests were the result of the South African rugby team’s tour to New Zealand at the height of South Africa’s Apartheid policy. Most of the games went ahead, but there was nationwide condemnation and protest action. The event was a defining moment in the country’s history as it defined its postcolonial identity.
“Iwi” is often translated as “tribe,” which is accepted and acceptable in NZ; it also means “people” or “nation” in Maori. “Maoritanga” refers to Maori culture.