"Where is the text in chess?" asks Espen Aarseth. Rules, play, and semiosis are the (un)common ground between games and stories in "interactive narrativism" and the art of simulation.
Dennis Cooper's disorienting novel, The Sluts, complicates reader expectations about subjectivity and identity. As a result, Megan Milks notes that it "is either the most honest or the most dishonest literature I have come across."
Stuart Moulthrop complicates the idea of self-contained games.
Espen Aarseth holds that gameplay, not Lara Croft?s physique, should command the attention of an evolving game studies.